Electric Vehicle Design and Development
The automobile industry is growing rapidly and shifting towards Electric Vehicle. There is an immense need for skilled engineers in order to speed up this transition and meet the goals set by the companies. As compared to the traditional vehicle, which is driven by the internal combustion engine, the EV has a completely different architecture.
The aim of this course is to take you through the basics to the industrial approach of the powertrain selection process. Where you gain a better understanding of both “mechanical” and “electric” aspects of powertrain design architecture, key components behaviour and functions and the various forces acting on the vehicle and their impact on powertrain selection for EV applications. By the end of the program, you will be able to perform initial calculations to select a suitable motor and power unit for the required Electric Vehicles.
This course has been designed for you to build the industrial knowledge development experience with most basic concepts for development and calculation of an Electric Vehicle while performing the calculations for one at the same time. This program will benefit building your fundamental base and will give a fine guideline that how to select the suitable powertrain for EV applications.
Main Features –
- Understanding the technology fundamentals of HEV and EV.
- Understand different architectures and powertrain applications.
- Calculate torque and power requirement for the vehicle.
- Calculate the motor requirements as per the vehicle requirement.
- Calculate the battery pack required and cell arrangement.
- Perform the selection of suitable BMS topology and architecture for the required application.
What is the Target Audience?
- Undergraduate students
- Post Graduation student
- Working Professional who is new to EV
- Entrepreneurs are interested to gain knowledge of EV and it’s Powertrain.
|EV Introduction||We will start by taking a look at the basics of the automobile – the basic requirement for a vehicle to be labelled as an automobile. The various architecture present and their combinations.
Following this, we will travel through time and look at various developments in the transportation industry in terms of automobiles, and in the process understand the factors that have led to the coming of EV in today’s time.
At last, we will discuss various factors affecting EV market trends for the last decade and current and upcoming scenarios.
Case Study: Hybrid Architecture of BMW i8 and SHVS technology by Suzuki.
|Vehicle Longitudinal Dynamics||In the first video, you will be introduced to the vehicle coordinate system and a few basic terms related to vehicle dynamics. Starting from the basics then we will move on to understand the various forces acting on an accelerating vehicle.|
|Aerodynamic Forces||Aerodynamic force/drag force is the major force acting on a moving body. So it becomes really important to understand the factors governing the production of drag.
Using the most basic shapes of the geometry, study how the drag force is developed, various methods involved in order for drag reduction. How have these concepts led the design to evolve? Moreover, what are the tricks to calculate the drag force for any given 2 wheeler or 4 wheeler in consideration?
Case Study: Evolution of design and aerodynamic performance – Maruti 800, Alto 800, Swift Dzire and BMW i8.
|Rolling Resistance||Wheels are the most abused components in any vehicle. At any given moment numerous forces of various magnitude are acting on it, causing it to be one of the most stressed components. If you have the best motor in the world but there is no grip, how can you win? Thus it is important to choose an appropriate wheel for your vehicle because the wheel plays an important role in order to gain the control and traction of the vehicle.
Study about the various forces acting on the wheel, and its behaviour under various load conditions. What is the right wheel to choose for your vehicle? How can you minimise the losses on the wheels? You will be able to answer all these questions by the end of this module.
|Motor Selection||Coming to the final module of this course. You will use the knowledge of the previous modules and the oldest tools – pen and paper to go through the whole process in order to calculate the forces acting. You will plot graphs and study them in order to determine the performance of your vehicle at any given instance, during acceleration. By the end of it you will be able to determine the torque and rpm requirement at the wheels, and consecutively the power required.
But that is not enough, you will look at the performance output of various motors available in the market for EV application and decide on the motor to be used as per your requirement.
|Motor Basics||In this module take a brief look into the history of the electric vehicle, and its development over the years. What are the different types of architectures?
Further, have a basic understanding of motor types used in EV and the basic working principle of a motor.
|Motor Characteristics||Now that, the types of motors and basic working principle is clear. Take a look at the construction, working and various characteristics of the DC Series motor, Induction Motor and BLDC motor.
By the end of the module, you will be able to choose the type of motor required as per the application.
|Motor Control Methods||Now that the motor characteristics and behaviour is clear, this module will tell you about how the motor characteristics can be controlled as per the requirements and components involved for the same.|
|Motor Calculation||In this short module, you will learn about how to determine the motor power required and the input requirements for the motor, in order to finally select the motor for your requirement.|
|Li-Ion Battery Pack Selection||The previous modules were all about the motor and its control, but the energy required by the motor is stored in the battery pack. This module starts with the question – despite having so many chemistries, why only Lithium-ion cells are being preferred? This is then followed by a basic introduction to the battery pack – cell arrangement and design parameters. And by the end, you will be able to calculate the battery pack size required.|
|BMS and Safety||Now the battery pack is calculated and it is known what kind of cells to use, this module will take you through safety parameters and how to control them using BMS. By the end, you will be able to choose a suitable BMS architecture for the given electric vehicle.|
|Range Calculation||Now that battery pack is ready, take a look at various methods involved through which you can verify if the battery pack is compliant with your requirement.|
|Battery Charging||In this last module, take a look at the charging characteristics of a Li-ion battery pack. By the end, you will be able to determine the complete cell characteristics for selection of a battery pack.|
In this video we will discuss about the basic requirement for a vehicle to be termed as an automobile and take a look at the different architecture available currently in the market. And by the end we will study the major components of an electric vehicle.
In this video we will journey through time in order to understand the reasons and factors responsible for coming of EV.
In this video we will look at the trends for last decade and the future predictions in EV industry. Also, discuss about the factors affecting the EV industry.
Before going into the depths of the powertrain, learn about the basic coordinate system and terminologies for vehicle dynamics.
Learn about the forces acting on a vehicle under longitudinal motion.
The basic equation for aerodynamic drag force.
Study about the aero flow around the basic shapes - cone and sphere and learn about the parameters controlling the drag force.
How can the drag force be reduced around the body?
How aerodynamics has affected the evolution of design of the cars?
BMW i8 aerodynamics study
Calculating Aerodynamic Forces
Total 6 question - 12 marks
Brief on the basic terminologies before you enter the world of wheel dynamics
Tyre Nomenclature, and tyre construction.
Physical property of rubber and introduction about how it leads to hysteresis loss.
How the contact patch is formed for a wheel in motion, under a given load?
How the tyre deflects giving rise to hysteresis during motion?
Losses in realistic conditions
Factors affecting hysteresis loss and methods to optimize it.
Perform the calculation for retrofitment of Pulsar 150.
Walkthrough the process of motor selection and finalization for a given vehicle.
The factors affecting the limitation to traction force and how it affects the motor selection process.
In this final stage learn about the motor performance curves and which type of motor to select based on application?
Motor and Controller
Development of Electric Vehicle through time.
Various Electric powertrain architecture currently available.
Take a look at one of the first electric vehicle of modern era, and components used in it.
What constitutes an electric powertrain?
How these components come together to make a car move?
Types of Motors used in an EV
Basic working principle of a motor
Working and Construction of a DC Series motor.
Output characteristics of a DC Series motor
Working and Construction of an Induction motor.
Characteristics of an induction motor
Working of a BLDC Motor
Characteristics of a BLDC Motor
Buck Converter utility
DC - AC Converter
Current and Voltage regulation
BLDC Control Methodologies
Pulse Width Modulation - Methodology
Battery and BMS
Why Li-Ion cells are preferred for battery pack?
Basics constituents of battery pack
Series and Parallel combination to choose
Battery Pack Design parameters
How to read and understand cell data.
Calculate number of cells required and their arrangement
Why is there a need for BMS?
What is thermal runaway? How is it caused?
Cell Types on the basis of their form structures.
What are the features and functionality of a BMS?
What are the basic components of a BMS and how it functions?
Understand in detail about the CLass A Architecture and its functionality
What are the various methods to measure the cell voltage in a pack?
What are the various BMS Topologies and Configuration as per the complicity of battery pack?
How to measure the current in a battery pack?
Measuring temperature across a battery pack.
What are the parameters to be considered for battery pack safe operation?
What are the various methods for cell balancing? Why is it needed?
The parameters controlled by BMS and Their execution
Various methods to measure state of charge in a battery pack
Conclusion on how to select BMS suitable for the battery pack.
What kind of fuse to select to ensure safe operation of the battery pack?
Different driving cycles used by ARAI for range and speed calculation of the vehicle.
How to calculate and estimate the range of an electric vehicle?
What is C Rating and how to interpret the data?
Various charging state and regions for a Li-ion battery
Methodology used for battery charging